- Can you describe the process you follow when designing a network from scratch?
* The candidate should explain the steps they take, such as gathering requirements, analyzing existing infrastructure, creating a network topology, selecting appropriate hardware, and considering security and scalability.
What factors do you consider when determining the network topology for a new organization?
- The candidate should mention factors like the organization's size, geographic locations, number of users, required services, redundancy needs, and growth projections.
How do you ensure network security in your design?
- The candidate should discuss methods like implementing firewalls, VPNs, access control lists (ACLs), secure protocols, network segmentation, and regular security audits.
What are the different layers of the OSI model, and how does each layer contribute to network design?
- The candidate should provide an overview of the OSI model and explain how each layer is responsible for specific functions, such as data encapsulation, routing, and application interactions.
How do you design a network to handle high availability and redundancy requirements?
- The candidate should discuss strategies like implementing redundant hardware, link aggregation, Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP), and utilizing multiple data centers.
How do you optimize network performance and reduce latency in your design?
- The candidate should mention techniques like traffic prioritization (QoS), load balancing, caching, and utilizing faster network technologies (e.g., 10Gbps, 40Gbps, or 100Gbps).
What is the difference between a Layer 2 and a Layer 3 network design, and when would you choose one over the other?
The candidate should explain that Layer 2 designs focus on local LAN connectivity, while Layer 3 designs involve routing and interconnecting multiple LANs or VLANs.
Layer 2 designs are generally simpler and used for smaller networks, while Layer 3 designs are more scalable and suitable for larger networks.
How do you address scalability in your network design to accommodate future growth?
- The candidate should discuss using modular and scalable hardware, implementing dynamic routing protocols, and ensuring that the design can accommodate additional users and devices.
How do you design a network to support multimedia applications and real-time services like VoIP?
- The candidate should mention Quality of Service (QoS) implementation, bandwidth provisioning, and minimizing latency and jitter to ensure smooth multimedia communication.
What are some best practices for documentation and maintaining network design records?
- The candidate should explain the importance of detailed documentation, diagrams, and using network design tools or software to keep records up to date.
How do you handle network convergence and re-routing in case of link failures in your design?
- The candidate should discuss how they set up protocols like Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) or OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) to handle link failures and converge quickly to new paths.
What is a DMZ (Demilitarized Zone), and how do you design network security with DMZ in mind?
The candidate should explain that a DMZ is a network segment that separates the internal network from external networks (e.g., the internet).
They should discuss how to place public-facing servers in the DMZ and configure firewall rules to control traffic between the DMZ and internal network.
Can you describe a specific network design project you have worked on, including the challenges you faced and how you overcame them?
- The candidate should provide a real-world example of a network design project they have been involved in, outlining the project's objectives, the issues they encountered, and the solutions they implemented.
How do you ensure compliance with industry standards and regulations in your network design?
- The candidate should mention staying up-to-date with industry standards and ensuring that the network design adheres to relevant regulations, such as HIPAA, GDPR, or PCI DSS.
What considerations do you take into account when designing a network for a remote or branch office?
- The candidate should discuss factors like available bandwidth, redundancy options, remote management capabilities, and security measures for branch networks.